"Palmer/Gonstead" Listings and their
    possible Muscular Associations


ASL: Right Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor, Right. Superior Oblique, Left. Levator Scapula.

ASR: Left Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor, Left. Superior Oblique, Right. Levator Scapula.

ASLA: Right Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor, Right. Superior Oblique, Left Levator Scapula, Left Inferior Oblique.

ASRA: Left Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor, Left Superior Oblique, Right Levator Scapula, Right Inferior Oblique.

(The role of the Inferior Qblique muscle is confused by anterior movement/position of the superior articulating facet of the Atlas on the opposite side of Atlas laterality.  The Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor muscle would not be involved in an atlas "AI" listing).

Axis PR: Left Rectus Capitis Posterior Major, Right Levator Scapula, Left Semispinalis Cervicis.

Axis PL: Right Rectus Capitis Posterior Major, Left Levator Scapula, Right Semispinalis Cervivis.

C3 through L-5

PL: Right Multifidus of the same level (spinous process insertion).  Possible Left Multifidus on a superior level with an origin from Left. t.p. of the involved segment)

PR: Left Multifidus of the same level (spinous process insertion).  Possible Right Multifidus on a superior level with an origin from Right t.p. of the involved segment.

(Superior or Inferior wedges are determined with Intertransversarii involvement - see text)

Sacro-Illiac Articulation

Erector Spinae above illiac crest of the P-I illium or sacral inferiority.

Gluteus Maximus on side opposite of sacral apex shift.

Gluteus Medius for AS ilium, same side.